The Temple of Augustus was built in the late first century BC in the Roman colony of Barcino. Many temples dedicated to Augustus, the first Roman emperor, were built in the territories of the Roman Empire.
Barcino’s full name was Colonia Favencia Julia Augusta Paterna Barcino, meaning favored Colony Barcino of Father Julius Augustus. The temple remained part of Barcino’s city forum for over four centuries.
The 9 meter high Corinthian columns formed the back corner of the temple which was 37 metres long and 17 metres wide. Outside the building, a millstone marks the highest point of the Roman city, Mont Tàber. The temple was reconstructed early in the 20th century by the Catalan Spanish Modernista architect Puig i Cadafalch.