Barcelona traces its origins over 2,000 years ago to the Roman colony called Barcino. It was founded by Emperor Augustus during the period of 15-10 BC, and the full Latin name of the colony was Iulia Augusta Faventia Paterna Barcino. Many remains of Barcino still exist in various locations of Barcelona’s Ciutat Vella (old town).
The area where Barcino was founded was already populated, mainly by the ancient Iberian Laietani tribe (from which the street name Via Laietana is derived). As a colony, Barcino was established to distribute land among retired soldiers. It was less important than the major Roman towns of Tarraco (Tarragona) and Caesaraugusta (Zaragoza). A wall was built around Barcino between the 1st and 2nd centuries AD, which was reinforced between the third and fourth centuries and it marked the city perimeter that remained until the Middle Ages. By the second century AD Barcino had a population of 3500–5000. The main economic activity was cultivation of the surrounding land, and its wine was widely exported.
1. Plaça Vila de Madrid
In the Plaça Vila de Madrid lies a section of the Roman road called Vía Sepulcral, which lay outside the walls of Barcino. The road was lined by Roman tombs. A raised walkway in Plaça Vila de Madrid provides views of a section of the road and tombs dating from the second and third centuries AD.
2. Carrer de Duran i Bas
On the walls of this street remains of four arches from a Roman aqueduct are still visible. The aqueduct originally ran all the way to the entry towers of Barcino called Porta Praetoria.
3. Carrer de la Palla
Carrer de la Palla begins in Plaça Nova and on this street you can see a long section of Roman wall and defense towers. The wall was approximately 16 meters high, covered a total distance of 1,350 meters and had 74 defence towers.
4. Plaça Nova
In Plaça Nova features two sections of Roman wall and two square towers from the second city wall, built in the fourth century AD. It was here that carriages and pedestrians once entered the city from the north through the main gate called Porta Praetoria. This is where Carrer del Bisbe now begins and follows the same route as Decamanus Maximus, one of the two main streets in the Barcino. In the fifteenth century the adjoining Casa de l’Ardiaca (Archdeacon’s house) was built. Plaça Nova also features a reconstructed section of an aqueduct that led into Barcino and a sculpture by Joan Brossa which spells out the name Barcino.
5. Plaça de Ramon Berenguer
This square facing Via Laietana is named after the Count of Barcelona between 1096 and 1131. It features a statue by Josep Llimona of the count on horseback set against a backdrop of Roman wall dating from the early 4th century AD and the Gothic chapel of Santa Àgata. The section of wall begins in Carrer de la Tapineria.
6. Plaça del Rei
Extensive Roman ruins have been excavated under Plaça del Rei and can be viewed in the Barcelona History Museum – MUHBA. The archaeological area under Plaça del Rei covers over 4000 m2 and reveals many details about daily life in Barcino.
7. Carrer del Paradís
The Temple of Augustus was built in the 1st century BC and dedicated to Emperor Augustus. It was 37 meters long, 17 meters wide with six columns at the front. The temple was situated in the forum area in what is now Plaça de Sant Jaume.
Four 9 meter tall columns from the Temple of Augustus can be seen at Carrer del Paradís 10-12. The temple was reconstructed by the architect Puig i Cadafalch in the early 20th century. Outside Carrer de Paradis 10, a millstone marks Mont Tàber, which was the highest point of Barcino. Carrer de Paradís is said to take its name from a beautiful garden that once existed in the area around the temple.
8. Baixada del Caçador
Remains of the first Roman wall and a tower from the second Roman wall can be seen here.
9. Carrer del Sots-Tinent Navarro
The section of Roman Wall on Carrer del Sotstinent Navarro is the continuation of the wall in Plaça Ramon Berenguer.
10. Plaça Traginers
This plaça near the port features a round Roman tower that was part of second Roman wall.
11. Carrer del Correu Vell
At number 4 Carrer Correu Vell, there is a passage that leads to a courtyard where there is a section of Roman wall with two defense towers.
12. Carrer del Regomir, 3
The Pati Llimona Civic Center reveals remains of harbor baths and the second main city gate, Porta Decamunus, the entrance from the harbor. In 2012, work on the Pati Llimona Centre Civic uncovered another 17 metre stretch of Roman wall.